STOR 155 Introductory Statistics. Lecture 10: Randomness and Probability Model


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1 The UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL STOR 155 Introductory Statistics Lecture 10: Randomness and Probability Model 10/6/09 Lecture 10 1
2 The Monty Hall Problem Let s Make A Deal: a game show back in the 90 s. A player is given the choice of three doors. Behind one door is the Grand Prize (a car and a cruise); behind the other two doors, booby prizes (stinking pigs). The player picks a door, and the host peeks behind the doors and opens one of the rest of the doors. There is a booby prize behind the open door. The host offers the player either to stay with the door that was chosen at the beginning, or to switch to the remaining closed door. Which is better: to switch doors or to stay with the original choice? What are the chances of winning in either case? 10/6/09 Lecture 10 2
3 3 Prisoners Dilemma Three prisoners, A, B, and C are on death row. The governor decides to pardon one of the three and chooses at random the prisoner to pardon. He informs the warden of his choice but requests that the name be kept secret for a few days. The next day, A tries to get the warden to tell him who had been pardoned. The warden refuses. A then asks which of B or C will be executed. The warden thinks for a while, then tells A that B is to be executed. Can A increase his chance of survival by swapping his fate with C? 10/6/09 Lecture 10 3
4 Remarks The previous two problems are equivalent. Play it online at y3/ How can we solve similar problems systematically? Probability models 10/6/09 Lecture 10 4
5 Randomness & Probability We call a phenomenon (or an experiment) random if individual outcomes are uncertain, but a regular distribution of outcomes emerges with a large number of repetitions. Example: Toss a coin, gender of new born baby. The probability of any outcome in a random experiment is approximately the proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of independent repetitions, using a longterm relative frequency to realize it In the early days, probability was associated with games of chance (gambling). 10/6/09 Lecture 10 5
6 Probability as long term relative frequency 10/6/09 Lecture 10 6
7 Probability Model Probability models attempt to model random behavior. Consist of two parts: A list of possible outcomes (sample space S) An assignment of probabilities P to each outcome The probability of an event A, denoted by P(A), can be considered as the long run relative frequency of the event A. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 7
8 Sample Space and Events Sample space S: the set of all possible outcomes in a random experiment. Examples: Toss a coin. Record the side facing up. S ={{Heads}, {Tails} } = { H, T }. Toss a coin twice. Record the side facing up each time. S =?. Toss a coin twice. Record the number of heads in the two tosses. S =?. Event: An outcome or a set of outcomes in a random experiment, i.e. a subset of the sample space. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 8
9 Sample Spaces & Events Sample Space a sample space of a random experiment is the set of all possible outcomes. Our objective is to determine P(A), the probability that an event A will occur. Simple events The individual outcomes are called simple events. Event An event is a collection of one or more simple events 10/6/09 Lecture 10 9
10 Toss a coin 3 times Sample space S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT}. There are 8 simple events, among which are E 1 = {HHH} and E 8 ={TTT}. Some compound events include A = {at least two heads} = {HHH, HHT,HTH, THH}. B = {exactly two tails} =?. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 10
11 Boy or girl? An experiment in a hospital consists of recording the gender of each newborn infant until the birth of a male is observed. The sample space of this experiment is S = {M, FM, FFM, FFFM,...} The sample space contains an infinite number of outcomes. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 11
12 Basic Concepts The complement of an event A the set of all outcomes in S that are not in A. { not A } The union of two events A and B the event consisting of all outcomes that are either in A or in B or in both. A B The intersection of two events A and B the event consisting of all outcomes that are in both events. A B When two evens A and B have no outcomes in common, they are said to be disjoint (or mutually exclusive) events. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 12
13 Venn Diagram 10/6/09 Lecture 10 13
14 Probability Rules For any event A, 0 P(A) 1. P(S) = 1. If A and B are disjoint events, then P(A B) = P(A) + P(B). (addition rule for disjoint events) For any event A, P( not A ) = 1  P(A). (complement rule) For any two events A and B, P(A B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A B). (general addition rule) If A and B are disjoint, then P(A B) = 0. 10/6/09 Lecture 10 14
15 Equally Likely Outcomes If there are k equally likely outcomes, then the probability assigned to each outcome is 1/k. P(A) = (# of outcomes in A) / k Key: smart counting  ``no omission, no duplication 10/6/09 Lecture 10 15
16 Birthday problem In a group of 5 people, what is the chance that at least two of them share the same birthday? Assume 365 days in one year, then the chance is 1 p Detailed work will be shown on the board 10/6/09 Lecture 10 16
17 Roll a fair die once The label facing up, when a fair die is rolled, is observed. Sample Space: S = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Every outcome is equally likely to occur. P(1) = P(2) = = P(6) = 1/ Venn Diagram 10/6/09 Lecture 10 17
18 Consider the following events A: The label observed is at most 2. B: The label observed is an even number. C: Label 4 turns up. Find P(A) P( not A) P(A and B) P(A or C) P(A or B) Roll a fair die once 10/6/09 Lecture 10 18
19 Cards A card is drawn from an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards. What is the probability that the card is  a club?  a king?  a club and a king?  a club or a king?  neither a club nor a king? 10/6/09 Lecture 10 19
20 Glasses In a group of 88 people in STOR 155, 11 out of 50 women and 8 out of 38 men wear glasses. What is the probability that a person chosen at random from the group is a woman or someone who wears glasses? 10/6/09 Lecture 10 20
21 Venn diagram with 3 events A = {Google stock moves up today} B = {Walmart stock moves up today} C = {Exxon stock moves up today} P(A) = 0.1, P(B) = 0.2, P(C) = 0.5 P(A B) = 0.05, P(A C) = 0.04, P(B C) = 0.02 P(A B C) = 0.01 Find: (i) P( at least one of the 3 stocks go up) = (ii) P( both Google and Exxon go down) = (iii) P( only one of the 3 sticks goes up) = 10/6/09 Lecture 10 21
22 Continued How to complete a Venn diagram?  Insert a probability in each disjoint part  ``insideout  See details on the board 10/6/09 Lecture 10 22
23 Take Home Message sample space, outcome, event union (or), intersection (and), complement (not), disjoint Venn diagram Basic rules: For any event A, P( not A) = 1  P(A). If A and B are disjoint, then P(A B) = 0. For any two events A and B, P(A B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A B). 10/6/09 Lecture 10 23
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